All about Proteins to amino acids in Human Body good health

Protein- a macronutrient nutrient
Protein- a basic macronutrient of life.
Proteins to amino acids

Overview of Proteins to amino acids

Proteins to amino acids have prime importance for a healthy life. “Proteins to amino acids”, are polymers of amino acids. These are essential for good health.

What is Proteins to amino acids?

“Proteins to amino acids” Amino acids combine together by peptide bonds. Amino acids form polypeptides chins. In polypeptide chains, thousands of amino acids are present. On hydrolysis, Proteins convert into amino acids.

Proteins to Amino acids structure:

Amino acids have an amino group, the Carboxylic group. These groups attach to the alpha carbon of amino acids. Since Carbon atoms form four bonds, therefore there is space for another group. This group is represented by “R” . Amino acids are different from each other due to this “R” group. For example, if “H” is attached in place of “R”, it forms Glycine.

Importance of Proteins and amino acids for good health:

Word “Protein” means “of prime importance”. Proteins are very essential for our body. They play both structural roles in our body. Proteins deficiency in our body may cause serious complications. Therefore to enjoy a good health role is very important.

Properties of amino acids

Amino acids are crystalline, white in color.

Amino acids are either acidic or basic, while some are amphoteric.

They differ in taste with respect to each other, such as glycine and alanine are sweet in taste.

Classification of Proteins:

Proteins vary with respect to the origin, composition of amino acids, their digestibility, and texture. Proteins are classified on basis of structure.

Simple Proteins:

These ate such proteins which yield amino acids when complete hydrolysis. These are given as follows:

Albumin of egg

Zein which is in corn

Globin of hemoglobin

Keratin of hair

Conjugated Proteins:

These are compounds of proteins with non-proteins molecules. Such as hemoglobin, Casein of milk, and lipoprotein.

Functions of proteins:

Proteins such as dietary proteins provide amino acids, to maintain body tissues. Proteins produce antibodies, enzymes, and hormones.

Body Building:

Muscles proteins help in muscle contraction and hold fluid

Certain proteins such as hair proteins skin and nails proteins are hard and insoluble hence, providing protecting covering to the body.

Proteins also plays role in maintaining blood pressure.

Proteins give such a framework. In this mineral matter of bones embeds.

Proteins role as enzymes:

All enzymes are proteins in nature. Such as digestive enzymes and other enzymes. Chemical relations taking place in our body need enzymes. Therefore proteins are important for our body.

Proteins role as hormones:

Different hormones in our body are proteins in nature. Certain hormones such as insulin, thyroxine, and epinephrine play an important role in the body. Hormones help to regulate body functions.

Proteins role in maintaining Acid-bace Balance:

Proteins act as a buffer, therefore these help to maintain acid-base balance in the body. Acid-base balance is essential for our body health. In normal metabolism, our body produces both acid and base, but acid predominates in the body.

Proteins Role in Energy Providing:

We obtain about 4KCl from one gram of protein. When there is a deficiency of energy in our body such as in the case of a lack of carbohydrates in the body, we use proteins to obtain energy.

Effect of Excess Proteins in body:

Proteins which we take in excess amount than body requirement are not stored in the body. Toxic nitrogen, produced as a result of proteins metabolism. It is converted into urea and other harmless substances. Our kidneys filter these substances. Sometimes we consume a high protein diet but not harmful for adults. However, if we use high proteins for a long time, it may cause kidney stones. For babies too much consumption of proteins is harmful. Because the kidneys of babies are immature.

Proteins requirements for body:

How much protein do we need? For adults, it depends upon the number of active cells in the body. we lose Nitrogen from the body in the form of urine, feces, and sweat. Some factors affect this loss. These factors include growth, injury, stress, and physical activity. Male need more proteins than females, but adult males. Male has more muscle cells, Therefore need more proteins than females. About 70% of proteins that we take in a mixed diet are used to make new proteins. The body requires 0.8 g per kg body weight daily. We obtain 15% of our total energy from proteins. Children and adolescents both need proteins. They need maintenance and growth. During pregnancy, women need more proteins than usual.

What is Quality of Protein:

Proteins quality depends upon the type of amino acids. Amino acids may be essential or non-essential in proteins. Those proteins that have a good balance of proportion of amino acids are of good quality. Such as animal proteins have good quality than plant proteins. Proteins’ nutritional value is related to amino acids required for making new tissues. Some amino acids are limiting amino acids. These amino acids do not meet standards. Such as lysine in wheat protein. Amino acid analyzer makes judgments about the quality of proteins. We determine the quality of proteins by biological test.

Proteins defficiency Disorders:

When we take a diet that is low in proteins, then deficiency occurs. There may be a deficiency of proteins in alcoholisms and starvation. Malnutrition due to proteins deficiency is called Protein-energy malnutrition. Two common protein deficiency disorders are Kwashiorkor and Marasmus.

Kwashiorkor:

It is a severe form of protein-energy malnutrition. In developing countries, it is a common disorder due to protein deficiency. It is a disorder before 1933. Its signs and symptoms are:

Pitting edema

Enlarged fatty liver

fibrosis

Depigmentation of hair, and skin

Dermatitis

It is diagnosed indirectly by anthropometry. In its screening, we use mid-upper arm circumference.

In this disease, skin flakes and ulcerate. Muscles wasted. It may be not only due to low protein intake but also due to other factors. Such as aflatoxins and deficiency of essential vitamins and minerals.

Marasmus:

Marasmus is an extreme form of protein-energy-malnutrition. Like Kwashiorkor, it is also common in developing countries. It is such a disorder that can be recovered if take sufficient food. In this disorder muscles become weak. The appearance of children becomes dull. It occurs in the early months of life.

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DietPK Team

Dietpk Team

Dn Naseem Abbas and his team are a group of Nutritionists. Dietpk.com does not provide any nutritional advice, diagnosis, or treatment. All content on our website is just for information purposes only.

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